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Albania and Kosovo in 1910

Robert Elsie

Robert Elsie

Ernst Jäckh (1875-1959) was a German journalist, publisher and scholar, born in Urach in southwestern Germany. His time in Turkey in 1908-1909, during and after the Young Turk revolution, made a deep impression on him and he became a strong promoter of the new Turkey and of German-Turkish relations. In the summer of 1910, he was in Kosovo and Albania at the invitation of the Turkish General Staff to support Turkish troops in their struggle to put down the Albanian uprising. He had occasion to accompany the troops on a military expedition from Skopje to Ferizaj, Fushë Kosova (Kosovo Polje), Prizren, down the Drin River to Shkodra. From there he accompanied General Shefket Turgut Pasha through Mirdita and Gostivar back to Skopje. He was also with Turkish armed forces during the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912). In 1912, Jäckh founded the German-Turkish Association and in 1914 he was appointed to teach Turkish history at the University of Berlin. After the First World War, he supported liberal parliamentary democracy in Germany and promoted Germany’s accession to the League of Nations. He was also co-founder of the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik. In 1933, with the rise of the Nazis, Jäckh emigrated to London where he was appointed international director of the New Commonwealth Institute. In 1940 he was appointed Professor of Public Law and Government at Columbia University in New York where he died. His archives including his photos of Albania are preserved at the manuscript division of the library of Columbia University. Among his publications is the book Im türkischen Kriegslager durch Albanien: Bekenntnisse zur deutsch-türkischen Freundschaft (Through Albania with the Turkish Military: In Support of German-Turkish Friendship), Heilbronn 1911, from which this photo collection is taken. Additional photos were graciously provided by the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University in New York. 

Jäckh001: Trekking through the mountains of Albania (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh023: “Turkish pioneers building a pontoon bridge over the Vardar River near Skopje” (Photo: Louis Mosel, Skopje, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0038).
Jäckh027: “Albanians on the warpath in the mountains” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh033: "The tunnel near Kaçanik where the Albanians cut off Turkish troops" (Photo: Bank Director A. Grohmann, Saloniki, ca. 1910).
Jäckh034: "Albanian notables from the Hoti tribe in Traboina" (Photo: Dr E. Schulz, Hamburg, ca. 1910).
Jäckh035: “Reservists from Samsun, led by their commander, on the plain of Ferizaj” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh038: “Turkish machine-gun platoon” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0039).
Jäckh041: "Military hospital and barracks near Mitrovica" (Photo: Bank Director A. Grohmann, Saloniki, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0068).
Jäckh043: "An Albanian kulla [fortified stone tower] surrounded by Turkish cavalry" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh047: "A Sworn Virgin called the ‘Robber Buck,’ from the Hoti tribe" (Photo: Dr E. Schulz, Hamburg, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0114).
Jäckh054: "The Albanians hasten to pay homage to Sultan Mehmed V in the summer of 1911 on Plain of Kosovo [Kosovo Polje /Fushë Kosova]" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, 1911).
Jäckh057: “Serbian church and Muslim mosque in Prizren, with the fortress looming above the Serbian quarter” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, 1911).
Jäckh062: “Albanian boys playing in the Bistrica River” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, 1911. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0067).
Jäckh066: "The men who accompanied me from Prizren through the valley of the Drin. On the left and right are soldiers. The kiradji [horse driver] is in front holding my horse. Behind the tree is Nicola and beside him the son of the Turkish hadji as well as two Albanians in wooden saddles who joined us on the road" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh068: Kosovo Albanian fighters (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, 1911).
Jäckh069: "Albanian from the mountains of Koman, with a perçe [scalp lock]" (Photo: Paul Traeger, ca. 1910).
Jäckh071: "Turkish convoy with Albanian prisoners showing them the way" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0036).
Jäckh073: "The Vizier’s Bridge over the Drin River, constructed in the 15th century under Venetian influence" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh076: "An Albanian canoe (double dugout) on the Drin River" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh085: "Muslim Albanian girl in Dukagjin" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0049).
Jäckh089: "Albanian wedding procession in the open countryside. The bride and the cart with her dowry" (Photo: Bank Director A. Grohmann, Saloniki, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0008).
Jäckh091: "Women and children from Hoti. In the middle is an ‘Amazon’ in male attire" (Photo: Dr E. Schulz, Hamburg, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0090).
Jäckh095: “Two Highland women spinning and carrying water” (Photo: Paul Traeger, ca. 1910).
Jäckh100: “Rocky bed of the Drin River with grazing cattle” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh101: "Albanian carting wood on the flatland around the town of Shkodra" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0012).
Jäckh103: "Commander-in-chief, General Shefket Torgut Pasha (wearing a wrap around his head) in Shkodra. In front of him is the retired Grand Vizier, Hilmi Pasha" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0032).
Jäckh113: “General Shefket Torgut Pasha reviewing the troops” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh114: "Albanian clergymen: Franciscans, lay priests and Jesuits at Lake Shkodra" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0006).
Jäckh117: “Albanian townswomen at a Catholic mass” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh131: "General Shefket Torgut Pasha, led by Bishop Docci [Doçi], on his way to Mirdita" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0033).
Jäckh132: “Members of the Turkish General Staff in Mirdita” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0014).
Jäckh135: “Crossing the rivers in the mountains of Mirdita” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0017).
Jäckh145: “With the cavalry through a pass in the mountains of Mirdita” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910 Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0021).
Jäckh146: “View from the springs of Saint Alexander (Kroi i Shën Lleshit) in the mountains of Orosh in Mirdita” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0074).
Jäckh147: “General Shefket Torgut being notified of fighting by the Samsun reservists” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0016).
Jäckh152: “The Abbey of Bishop Docci [Doçi] in the mountains of Orosh” in Mirdita (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh153: "Albanian Catholics attending mass with their rifles at hand" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0004).
Jäckh157: “Mountain manor of Bishop Docci [Doçi], 1300 m. in elevation” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh167: “A kulla [fortified stone tower] blown up and destroyed” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh171: "Albanian peasant woman carrying hay and knitted stockings on a street in Shkodra" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910 Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0055).
Jäckh191: "Hanged in Dibra by a military court" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh193: “On horse trails though the gorges” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0025).
Jäckh199: “At the camp near Gostivar” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0041).
Jäckh204: “Through stony arid country in Albania” (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0019).
Jäckh207: “The Bulgarian town of Köprülü on the Vardar River,” now the Macedonian town of Veles (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0071).
Jäckh210: “The rapids on the Vardar River near Demirkapu,” now Demir Kapija in Macedonia (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910).
Jäckh300: "Street scene in Albania 1" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0001).
Jäckh301: "Street scene in Albania 2" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0060).
Jäckh302: "In front of the Church of St Alexander in Orosh, Mirdita" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0024).
Jäckh303: "Turkish officers in Albania" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0031).
Jäckh304: "Young Albanian from Zadrima" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0083).
Jäckh305: "Boys in the streets of Shkodra" (Photo: Ernst Jäckh, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0086).
Jäckh306: "Albanians of the Shkreli tribe" (Photo: Dr E. Schulz, Hamburg, ca. 1910. Courtesy of Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, 130114-0115).

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